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Banana
7 months ago

Banana

Resource by Plusfarm

Banana, fruit of the genus Musa, of the family Musaceae, one of the most important fruit crops of the world. The banana is grown in the tropics, and, though it is most widely consumed in those regions, it is valued worldwide for its flavour, nutritional value, and availability throughout the year. Cavendish, or dessert, bananas are most commonly eaten fresh, though they may be fried or mashed and chilled in pies or puddings. They may also be used to flavour muffins, cakes, or breads. Cooking varieties, or plantains, are starchy rather than sweet and are grown extensively as a staple food source in tropical regions; they are cooked when ripe or immature. A ripe fruit contains as much as 22 percent of carbohydrate and is high in dietary fibre, potassium, manganese, and vitamins B6 and C.


Varieties


Variety

Characteristics

Gross Michel

Ripening varieties

Apple

Ripening varieties

Giant Cavandish

Ripening varieties

Dwarf Cavandish

Ripening varieties

Williams hybrid

Ripening varieties

Grand Nain

Ripening varieties

Vallery

Ripening varieties

Paz

Ripening varieties

Lacatan

Ripening varieties

Ugandan Red

Ripening varieties

Peripeta

Ripening varieties

Ng’ombe,

Cooking Varieties

Ugandan green

Cooking Varieties

Mutahato

Cooking Varieties

Gradi Shisikame

Cooking Varieties

Muraru

Duo-purpose

Gold Finger

Duo-purpose

Ng’ombe,

Duo-purpose

Bokoboko

Duo-purpose

Mkono wa tembo

Duo-purpose




Cultivation


Agroecological requirement

Altitudes of below 1800 m above sea level are generally recommended for the production of bananas.. For optimal growth, bananas require a warm humid climate. An average temperature of 20°C-30°C is required. At Below 20°C, normal plant growth is retarded. Lacatan and Valery tolerate cold weather better than other varieties. Cooler areas (higher altitudes) slow down plant development and the inflorescence may also fail to emerge.

Bananas can grow well with an annual rainfall of between 1000 and 2500 mm. optimal yields require a well distributed annual rainfall of 1400 mm or more, without long dry spells.

Land preparation

Before planting, deep soil cultivation by ploughing and harrowing is recommended. The fields should be free of trees, bushes and especially perennial weeds

Planting

Should be done at the onset of rains. Under dry conditions dig holes 90cm by 90cm by 60cm, in wet areas dig the holes 60cm by 60cm by 60cm.

Spacing is done as follows:

Short variety (Dwarf Cavendish, Giant Cavendish) 2.5m × 3m.

Medium variety (Valery, Williams) 3.0m × 4.0m.

Tall variety (Lacatan, Poyo) 4.0m× 4.0m.

Fertilizer and manure application

At planting, about 150-200g of triple super phosphate (TSP) should be applied per plant.

An early and good supply of nitrogen fertilizer is essential to accelerate the growth of pseudo-stems and faster flowering.

To 250-300g of calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) should be distributed around each stool per year, together with 125g of TSP, which is worked into

Soil Requirements/Management

Several steps can be taken to replenish or increase soil nutrients; they include:

Mulching of banana fields is a traditional agronomic practice favored for its suppression of weeds, conservation of moisture and maintenance of soil fertility. It also plays an important role in the control of soil erosion. This can be done through the following ways:

Spreading pruned banana leaves and plant parts remaining after harvest on the plantation floor, supplemented with materials from crop fields, fallow fields, swamps and livestock manure.

 

40-60kg of decomposed farmyard manure is applied per stool per year before the rains. This is applied on the outer diameter of the canopy. A short-forked hoe is used to incorporate the manure shallowly and carefully, to ensure no root damage.

weeding 

Cultivation should always be shallow because a banana plant is shallow rooted. If mechanical weeding is done, care should be taken to avoid any disturbance of the roots and the developing suckers. Earthing up of the stem base is required in windy areas.

To provide bigger and higher quality bunches, bananas have to be de-suckered regularly to control any unwanted sucker growth. Only three pseudo-stems should be allowed to remain on each corm: one bearing one half grown, and one just sprouting.

Surplus suckers should be removed as early as possible in their development and perhaps used as planting material. Dead leaves should be removed at least twice a year. After harvesting, the pseudo-stem should be cut off from the plant at ground level.

Propping of the fruit bearing pseudo-stem

Should be done to prevent breakage caused by heavy bunches. Y-sticks can be used for staking. This helps avoid unnecessary logging of the stems especially due to massive fruiting


Pests and Diseases / Commonly Used Agrochemicals


DISEASE

SYMPTOMS

MANAGEMENT

Fusarium wilt/panama disease

Collapsed and dropping dried leaves

Yellowing of older leaves;brown red ring like lines

Uproot affected banana stools in the farm,shred/cut into pieces and burn or bury

 Spray carbendazim(rodazim,pearl) and propamocarb(previcur)

Black sigatoka/black streak

Tiny leaf spots that appear on the bottom surface of the third/fourth open leaf

When the disease is severe leaves blacken and appear water-soaked

Remove/burn infected leaves

Use under canopy drip irrigation to reduce splash dispersal

Lower humidity as much as possible by ensuring optimum ventilation/aeration

Avoid shade from trees

Wide spacing

Rows should be oriented in the direction of wind to enhance aeration

Copper hydroxide,chlorothalonil and mancozeb can be use as they are protectant fungicide

Propiconazole,tebuconazole and azoxystrobin can be used as  they are systemic fungicides

Cigar end rot

Dry rot of flower end that produces ash grey wrinkled lesions similar to burnt end of a cigar

Plantation should have enough aeration

Field hygiene

Placing polyethylene sleeves over the stems before hands emerge

Bunches should be opened up to the light

Spray copper oxychloride, carbendazim or dithane

Anthracnose

Dark brown/black lesions on green fruit

On yellow fruit these lesions increase in size

The skin of the fruit turns black and shrivels

Spray copper oxychloride, carbendazim or benomyl

Use plastic coverings on emerging fruit to prevent infection.

Avoid damaging fruit tissue during harvest and storage. 

Remove decaying plant parts such as leaves.

Actively remove weeds and other non-crop species from plots to reduce favorable humid conditions for fungal infection

Banana weevil

severe infestation is reduced plant growth, choking of the bunch in the pseudostem, yellow leaves and weak or dying suckers

Selecting vigorous healthy planting material obtained from plants free of weevils. Examine planting material by taking one or two slices from it. If grubs, pupae or tunnels are present, the material should be destroyed.

Paring (trimming). If clean planting material is not available, the planting material should be pared (trimmed) to reduce the number of eggs and grubs.

 Hot water treatment. Recommendations suggest immersing clean trimmed suckers in a bath with hot water at 52 to 55degC for 15 to 27 minutes before planting

 


Post Harvest

Good harvesting practice is a key requirement to assuring the quality of fruits. Recommended good practice for harvesting, include:

Placing a prop that can be made by two crisscrossing bamboo poles or forked angle branches and cutting below the prop, followed by removal of the prop to allow the trunk to fall gently to the ground. “Light three-quarters” is the stage of maturity at which sharp angles are still present. At the “light full three-quarters,” stage, also termed “three-quarters full” or “three-quarters round”, the fingers are still angular. The fingers are full when they are well rounded . The intermediate between “full” and “light three-quarters” is “full three-quarters,” also referred to as “high three-quarters” or “heavy three-quarters” Bananas harvested at full maturity will develop good peel and pulp color, with full aroma and flavor at the ripe stage. Fruits harvested at an immature stage are of poor quality upon ripening. Harvesting at an advanced stage of maturity on the other hand, may be unsuitable for long-distance shipment since ripening will occur during shipment and result in fruit having a shorter shelf life. Minimizing damage, contamination, and deterioration during harvesting and field handling

  Every effort must be made to prevent contact of harvested bunches of bananas with the soil, by placing the harvested bananas on top of banana leaves.

Latex staining of field-de-handed bananas must be prevented by placing bananas on top of leaves with the rib (of the leaves) exposed. 

  When field-packing de-handed bananas, the crown portion must be wrapped until the mid portion of the hand with paper  to prevent abrasion and latex staining of other fruits.

  Bananas must not be exposed to the sun as this will lead to rapid moisture loss and rapid ripening. Shade can be provided by using a canvass tent in the field or by covering with layers of banana leaves.

Banana bunches must be placed on top of cushioning material when being transported from the farm to the collection site or packing shed, in order to avoid bruising and injury 

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