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Mango
2 months ago

Mango

Resource by Plusfarm

Mango trees are deep-rooted, symmetrical evergreens that attain heights of 90 feet and widths of 80 feet. Mango trees have simple alternate lanceolate leaves that are 12 to 16 inches in length and yellow-green, purple, or copper in color when young. Mature leaves are leathery, glossy, and deep green in color. New leaves arise in terminal growth flushes that occur several times a year. Mature terminal branches bear pyramidal flower panicles that have several hundred white flowers that are about a 1/4 inch wide when open. Most of the flowers function as males by providing pollen, but some are bisexual and set fruit. Pollination is by flies, wasps, and bees.

The fruit weighs about 1/4 pound to 3 pounds. Fruit may be round, ovate, or obovate depending on the variety. The immature fruit has green skin that gradually turns yellow, orange, purple, red, or combinations of these colors as the fruit matures. Mature fruit has a characteristic fragrance and a smooth, thin, tough skin. The flesh of ripe mangos is pale yellow to orange. The flesh is juicy, sweet, and sometimes fibrous. Some undesirable seedlings or varieties are described as possessing a turpentine-like off-taste. The fruit has one seed that is flattened and sticks to the flesh. The seed contains one or more embryos depending on the variety or type.

 


Varieties


variety

Physical description

Tommy

Atkins

It has a firm, deep yellow flesh, medium juice and moderate fibre and a pleasant aroma

Apple variety

It has a rich yellow/orange colour when ripe, with

medium to large fruits that are round in shape and smooth in texture and that do not have fibres

Kent variety

has a large-greenish-yellow fruit with a red or crimson blush on the shoulder.

Its flesh is juicy, melting deep yellow and fibreless, with a rich flavour

Ngowe variety:

Ngowe mango trees are comparatively small and round in shape. The fruit is good for

commercial production and export; however, the tree is susceptible to powdery mildew.

Haden variety:

It produces medium to large-sized fruit

and is very juicy with a pleasant aroma

Sabine Variety

The Yellow flesh is of medium texture, fibreless, pleasantly sweet, juicy and of a mild aroma.

Van dyke

Tree upright. Fruit is relatively smaller with a deep pinkish colour. The fresh is smooth and fibreless 

Batawi

The fruit is very large, round and has a rich olive- green to purple maroon colour. The flesh has a good texture, little fibre and good flavour. 



Cultivation

How To Plant Mango Seedlings

· Spacing of between 8 – 12 m2 (ideal situation) or 10*10m (dry zones) or 5*3m or 5*2.5m or 3*2.5m or 2.5*2.5m (where high-density planting is required)

· Depth of hole 1 x 1 x 1 m3 (in shallow & hilly soils) or 0.5*0.5*0.5m (in loamy and deep soils)

· Put the topsoil aside when digging the hole. · Mix top soil with manure and fertilizer as follows:  1 debe of manure per hole (in the ratio of 1debe manure to 3 debes of topsoil)

* About 60g of compound fertilizer (NPK) e.g. DAP, depending on the fertility of the soil. · Return the mixture to the hole filling to about 2/3 (two thirds) of the hole.

 Cut the polythene sleeve carefully so that the plant can be planted with the entire ball of the soil. Place each of the seedlings at the center of the planting hole· .Cover the seedling at exactly the same depth as it was in the polythene sleeve leaving it about 6 inches below the soil surface

Fertilizer Application
Once the trees are established (about 3 – 6 months after Planting), start applying nitrogenous

fertilizers e.g. CAN as follows: -

1st year 50g CAN/tree

2nd year 100g CAN/ tree

3rd year 150g CAN/tree

4th year 200g CAN/tree

N/B the nitrogenous fertilizers should be applied in splits to avoid leaching out.

· The seedlings should not be allowed to dry hence the need for frequent watering and/or mulching. With a spacing of 3m * 4m or (12m² a plant population of about 300plants /acre and 800plants/hectare

Flower inducement

1. Potassium nitrate is sprayed at a rate of 2-3 kg/ha when the plants are dormant.

2. Plants are deprived of water for a period of 1-2 months to induce stress and then irrigated regularly.

3. Ringing the branches or root pruning. 

Planting Regions

Planting regions: Coastal regions, Eastern province, Lower parts of Central province, Lake regions and drier parts of Rift Valley e.g. Baringo

Proper maintenance of mango trees; Mango trees need continuous attention in order to ensure continued harvests and to improve the lifespan of the orchard trees.

i) Pruning

The form and height of a mango tree needs to be controlled to guide the tree and to facilitate harvesting at a later stage. All cultivars are to some extent susceptible to anthracnose. The range of resistance (with Tommy Atkins being the most resistant) is Tommy Atkins, Van Dyke, Sabine, Ngowe, Apple, Keitt, Kent, Sensation, Boribo, Haden.There are several other diseases of mango fruits that have been reported occasionally. These include Alternaria rot, mango scab, stem-end rot, algal leaf spot, and sooty mold.

Formative pruning is done by cutting the main shoot at 1m high. Three or four horizontal shoots arise at a wide-angle to make a strong frame of the tree. Subsequent pruning is done to remove dead wood and to open the canopy. 

 


Pests and Diseases / Commonly Used Agrochemicals

pest/disease

symptoms

Management

Active ingredient

Brand name

Gall midges

Occurrence of “pimples” becomes necrotic and the leaves may drop

Apply either Dimethoate or Malathion, as soon as new shoots and leaves appear.

Malathion

 Dimethoate

malathion

dimethoate

Mango fruit fly

Premature ripening of fruit.Flesh under the skin (which is the egg laying site) becomes liquid due to secondary infection.

-Collect all fallen fruits, put them in a drum of water containing an amount of oil for two weeks.

 -Control is enhanced if the insecticide is mixed with an attract such as sugar or molasses. Use pheromone traps

Malathion 

 

Dimethoate 

malathion


dimethoate

Red banded thrips

Lower leaf surface is darkly stained, rusty appearance, with curled edges of leaves and numerous shiny black spots of excreta.

Prune trees to allow lighter conditions within the orchard (unfavourable conditions for thrips)

Avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizers which may promote thrip populations.

Fenitrothion + Esfenvalerate.

sumithion 50EC

Mango white scales

Due to sucking by the pest infested spots on fruit skin turn yellow and become depressed making fruits less attractive and difficult to market.

Apply either Malathion or Dimethoate mixed with white mineral oil. Higher concentrations are phytotoxic. 

Scales are also effectively controlled by use of D-C Tron Plus (Caltex oil)

diazinon 

chlorpyrifos

diazinon 60EC plus

 dursban

Mango seed weevil

Mango seeds damaged/destroyed by the weevil larvae have no external signs of damage to the fruit.Attacked fruits fall off prematurely but most times not.

Remove all fallen fruits and seeds from the field.

Spray biweekly with Malathion, Dimethoate, or Marshal until the fruits are about inch in diameter

Paint the trunk with white wash mixed with Dursban or Malathion during flowering to prevent the adult from climbing 

Paint tree trunk with Chlorpyrifos (Dursban) at 40ml /1 L of water at onset of flowering and once monthly for three months  

carbosulfan

Malathion

Dimethoate,

Chlorpyrifos

chlorpyrifos

 azadirachtin

Marshal 

malathion

dimethoate

Dursban

Sulban 

Nimbecidine

Mango powdery mildew

Infected flowers, flower stalk, young fruits and leaves are coated with white powdery growth of the fungus.Attacked fruits turn brown and shed prematurely.

Regular pruning of infected inflorescences at an early stage.

Removal of fallen leaves, inflorescences, and malformed fruits from the tree base.

Use of tolerant/resistant varieties.

benomyl

triadimefon

bupirimate

Benlate 

 (Bayleton 25 WP), 

(Nimrod 25EC) 

anthracnose

Excessive flower and fruit drop.The black spots on fruits develop into depressions and the skin cracks and turns into black rots and penetrates into the flesh

Prune dead branches and twigs to reduce disease harbouring areas

Propineb

Copper hydroxide

carbendazim

Antracol

,Kocide DF


rodazim

PLUSFARM KENYA                  Feeding Africa Sustainably


Post Harvest

Depending on cultivars and environmental conditions it takes 90 to 160 days after flowering for Kenya mangos to reach maturity. Not all fruits on one tree will ripen at the same time. A great Problem is to determine precisely the stage at which the fruit is ripe for picking. Fruits harvested too early will be of inferior quality after storage; however, fruits picked when too ripe cannot be stored for any length of time and may give rise to problems such as jelly seed. The fruit will have its best flavour if allowed to ripen on the tree. None of the tests (acid, sugar content or specific gravity) used to determine ripeness, however, are fully reliable.

The fruits are generally picked when they begin to change colour. This may occur first in a small area or the change will cover most of the fruit's surface. However, one destructive maturity test that can be applied even before the external colour break starts is to examine the colour of the flesh around the seed. When this begins to change from green-white to yellow or orange, it indicates that the fruit is beginning to ripen and may therefore be picked. Also, the greater the swelling of the shoulders above the stalk attachment, the riper the fruit is likely to be. Pick fruit by hand. Clip them off with a long stalk of about 2 to 3 cm and pack the fruit in a single layer with the stalks facing downwards in the box or crate. It is important that the latex dripping from the stalk drops onto an absorbent material (for example tissue paper placed at the bottom of the container). Although mature mangoes ripen fairly rapidly, they have a poor tolerance to temperatures below 10°C, especially when freshly picked. Ripe fruits can, however, be stored as low as 7 to 8° C without developing a chilling injury.

 

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