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GARLIC
8 months ago

GARLIC

Resource by Plusfarm

Garlic is a plant with long, flat grass-like leaves and a papery hood around the flowers. The greenish white or pink flowers are found grouped together at the end of a long stalk. The stalk rises directly from the flower bulb, which is the part of the plant used as food and medicine. The bulb is made up of many smaller bulbs covered with a papery skin known as cloves. Although garlic is known as the "stinking rose" it is actually a member of the lily family. For any farming, farmers should observe the required climatic changes, soil suitability, know-how of planting, best fertilizers, how to manage the growth of the plant, harvesting and storage of the plant.


Varieties


Variety

Description

Softneck-white

Paper-like skin with a fairly strong taste and pungent smell.(Creole, California Early, and California Late)

Elephant type

Large head and huge cloves

Hardneck

Characterizes with tan and purple markings. It is a variety that produces bigger and fewer cloves on each head.(Roja and German Extra Hearty)



Cultivation

Climatic requirements of garlic farming include:

· Medium to the high altitude of 500-2000 meters above sea level.

· Ideal temperature of 12-24°c

· Low humidity. This means high rainfall may distort the growth of the garlic.

. Adequate sunlight enhances flavor in garlic.

Soils

While preparing to plant garlic, analyze the soil. Garlic performs well in most Kenyan grounds as long as they drain water well. The plant performs poorly in water-logged soil. Thus clay soil should be avoided because they hinder the growth of the bulbs. The pH should range between 5.5 to 6.8. Mixing the soil with organic manure helps improve bulb formation.

Spacing and planting

It is advisable to observe spacing of 30cm between rows and 15cm or 6inches from each plant. Trenches should be at least 25 cm deep. “Tighter spacing in the beds will produce a greater number of smaller bulbs for a higher yield”. Water can be slightly sprinkled at the rows and stopped when the soil surface becomes damp to avoid over wetting that may cause rotting of the cloves before they even grow. Mulching can be applied on the growing garlic to prevent the seeds from the high humidity especially during rainy and cold seasons. A farmer can place a layer of grass, chopped leaves and straw. The layer is removed when the temperatures rise to 55-60°c when garlic seeds start to sprout. Good fertilizer which contains nitrogen, phosphate and potassium can be applied to enhance good growth and fertility of the garlic. However, one should be keen while applying to avoid damaging the actual plant.

 


Pests and Diseases / Commonly Used Agrochemicals

 

Pests

Symptoms

Active Ingredient

Commonly used agrochemials

Onion Downy Mildew

 

Lesions near the tips of the older leaves, Yellow patches covered with grey wet fields Leaf tips shrink, turn pale brown and later die

 

Fosetyl-aluminium (800G/KG), Mancozeb (640G/KG), Metalaxyl-M (40G/KG), Benzoic acid (120 G/L), Fosetyl-aluminium (80%), Mancozeb(80%), Metalaxyl (150G/L), Propamocarb Hydrochloride (100G/L)

 

ALIAL 80 WP, AMIDIL 68 WG, BIOSURE 120 SL, CHANCETYL ELITE 80 WDG, DITHANE M-45, GEARLOCK TURBO 25% WP

DAMPING OFF

 

Roots turn dark red or black as they decay. Seedlings are unthrifty and stunted, eventually turn yellow, wilt and die

Mancozeb (640G/KG)

Metalaxyl-M (40G/KG)

 

AMIDIL 68 WG

 

Purple Blotch

 

Small white spots on the foliage

 spots rapidly increase to large purplish blotches surrounded by a yellow-orange border

Infection may spread  causing orange rot at the neck

 

Benzoic acid (120 G/L)

Fosetyl-aluminium (80%)

Cymoxanil(42g/kg)

Copper oxychloride

Propamocarb Hydrochloride(375g/l)

Fenamidone(375g/l)

 

BIOSURE 120 SL

CHANCETYL ELITE 80 WDG

COLONIZER 440 WP

CONSENTO SC 450

 

Botrytis leaf spot

 

Distortion of young leaves, crown rot, and blossom blight. grayish fuzzy mold on the surface of the affected tissue is visible.

 

Mancozeb (800G/KG

Mancozeb (750G/KG)

Carbendazim (570G/KG) Triadimefon (30G/KG)

 

MILTHANE SUPER

OSHOTHANE PLUS WDG

RANSOM 600WP

 

Rust

 

 

 

 

Small reddish dusty spots (pustules) on leaves. Heavily infected leaves turn yellow and die prematurely

 

Carbendazim (570G/KG)

Triadimefon (30G/KG)

 

RANSOM 600WP

Pink Rot

captan

 

Light pink to yellowish-brown discoloration on roots that becomes dark pink than red and eventually purple

Trichloromethylthio-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide)

Trichoderma harzianum

 

Captan

Neck Rot

 

The top part of the bulb turns browner and the skin is darker brown.

The top of the bulb is softer than the lower parts. Grey mold speckled with small black spots appears

Recommended NPK rates

 

 

Pests

Symptoms

Active Ingredient

Commonly used Agrochemicals

Onion Thrips

Whitish blotches appear as silvery streaking on leaves. As feeding continues, affected tissue may turn dry and yellow

Acetamiprid (80G/KG)

Abamectin|Avermectin B1

Bifenthrin(25g/l)

Deltamethrin(cis-deltamethrin)(100g/l

Abamectin/Avermectin B1(20g/l)

Methiocarb(p)(200g/l)

AMAZING TOP 100 WDG

BRIGADE 25 EC

DECIS FORTE EC

EMPEROR TOP 100 SC

MESUROL 200 SL

CUTWORM

Cut off individual leaves from the stem and pull these underground.

Bifenthrin (25G/L)

alpha-cypermethrin/Alphamethrin(100g)

BRIGADE 25 ECTATA ALPHA 10 EC

CATERPILLAR

Brownish-white patches. As they get bigger, they bore down into the shaft of the leek

Bifenthrin (25G/L)

Deltamethrin(cis-deltamethrin)(100g/l

Abamectin/Avermectin B1(20g/l)

Lambda cyhalothrin(106g/l)

Thiamethoxam(141g/l)

Tebufenozide(20%)

BRIGADE 25

DECIS FORTE EC

EMPEROR TOP 100 SC

LEXUS 247 SC

 TRUMPET 200 SC

APHIDS

Plants wilt, yellow, collapse, and dry

Deltamethrin(cis-deltamethrin)(100g/l

Lambda cyhalothrin(106g/l)

Thiamethoxam(141g/l)

DECIS FORTE EC

LEXUS 247 SC

 

 Onion Flies

 

Yellowing and wilting of leaves, damaged bulbs and seedlings killed.

Chlorpyrifos, trichloronate Ethion,

 Iodofenphos, chlorfenvinphos

 diazinon

PLUSFARM KENYA                  Feeding Africa Sustainably



 


Post Harvest

For garlic, the farmer should start monitoring around 4-6months after planting. First, they should inspect the foliage. The best guide is to observe whether the garlic bulbs have turned brown or yellow. Most garlic farmers go wrong when they harvest too early or late this surely affects the produce. After harvest, the farmer should place the garlic in a dry place that has good ventilation to cure for several weeks. They should be stored to cool at temperatures just above 32°c.Once the garlic is dry, the farmer should cut the tops down to 1 inch, trim the roots and clean them. Garlic can stay up to 6-7 months if it is stored well.

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