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NJAHI/DOLICHOS
3 months ago

NJAHI/DOLICHOS

Resource by Plusfarm

Dolichos short-lived perennial forage legume. It is a twining, climbing, trailing, or upright herbaceous plant that can grow to a length of 3-6 m. It has a deep taproot and trailing stems. Dolichos leaves are alternate and trifoliolate. The leaflets are rhomboid in shape, 7.5-15 cm long x 8-14 cm broad, acute at the apex. The upper surface is smooth while the underside has short hairs. Inflorescences are many-flowered racemes borne on elongated peduncles. The flowers are white to blue or purple in colour, about 1.5 cm long, typically papilionaceous in shape. Dolichos fruits are linear, 4-15 cm long x 1-4 cm broad, smooth and beaked pods that contain between 2 and 8 seeds. Dolichos seeds (beans) are ovoid, laterally compressed with a conspicuous linear hilum. Dolichos beans are variable in colour, depending on variety or cultivar, usually white to dark brown, and some are black.



Varieties


Variety

About the crop

DL1002 (KAT/DL-1

The grain is black with a white hilum

 

The plant has a determinate growth habit in areas of upto 2000m above sea level - Flowers between 65-75 days

- Has purple flowers and a definite indeterminate flowering period - Matures between 80-90 days

 - The grain is black with a white hilum - Has a yield potential of 3000-4000kg/ha or 1200-1600kg/acre

- The crop can be ratooned giving a second crop that is 80% more grain than the first crop - It is mainly a grain type but at higher elevation it can also be used as fodder - It is attacked by pod borers. The diseases are of no economic importance

DL1009

Grains are dirty or cream white with a white hilum

Has a semi-climbing growth habit and has purple flowers

-Flowers in 68-80 days - Matures in 95-115 days

- Has yield potential between 2500-3000kg/ha or 1000-1200kg/acre

 -It is both a seed and fodder type - Pod borers can attack it. Diseases are of no economic importance.


Cultivation

Climate and soil requirements

DL1002 can be grown in altitudes of 1800m above sea level. When grown in altitudes higher than 1800m above sea levels, it can become a vegetative climber that may not yield much grain. It is recommended for cultivation in the lower and more marginal areas of Machakos, Kitui, Makueni, Mwingi, and Tharaka-Nithi and Laikipia district. 

DL-1009 is suitably grown in semi-arid areas between 50-100m above sea level. In more fertile and wetter parts, the variety may become a vegetative climber particularly in the cooler high-altitude masses of Machakos, Kitui, Makueni, Mwingi, Mer, and Laikipia. Both varieties can tolerate a wide range of soils including acidic and vertisol (black cotton) soils.

Crop Management Practices Land preparation 

The field should be well prepared without big soil clods and have fine filth. Hoe, oxen, and tractor can be used for plowing.

Planting Plant early: before the onset of the rains since Dolichos seeds take longer than common beans or cowpea to germinate and emerge. If oxen plow is used for planting, place seed in the furrows, and cover gently. Plant depth Place seed at a depth 5-7cm (or middle finger length) and cover gently and properly if erratic showers occur. Number of seeds per Hill/Thinning Sow three seeds per hole and thin to one plant per hole three (3) weeks after emergence. Seed Rate For both varieties use a seed rate of 8-12 kg/ha or 3-5 kg/acre. Spacing The distance between rows for both varieties is 100cm between plants at 50cm when planted as a pure crop.

 If intercropped with maize or sorghum after every row. Plant dolichos at a distance of 90cm or two-row of Dolichos after every two rows of maize or sorghum. Keep the distance between dolichos and cereals at 90cm and that between the two rows of dolichos at 75cm. When using an oxen-drawn plough, keep the distance between the two rows of Dolichos at 60cm. Weeding The first weeding must be done within 2 weeks after emergence while the second one must take place at least 3 weeks after the first.

 


Pests and Diseases / Commonly Used Agrochemicals



Disease 


Symptoms

Active Ingredients

Commonly Used

Angular leaf spot

Small angular,brown or straw coloured,water soaked spots on the leaves.

The spot expands,eventually covering the entire area between leaf veins.

Dimethomorph(450g/kg)

Azoxystrobin(350g/kg)

Mancozeb(640g/kg)

Metalaxyl-M(40g/kg)

Difenoconazole (125g/l)

AFFAIR TOP 800WDG

AMIDIL 68WG

AMISTAR TOP 325 SC

AMITIV 250 SC

AZOXY TOP 325 SC

Anthracnose

Small, dark brown to black lesions on cotyledons; oval or eye-shaped lesions on stems which turn sunken and brown with purple to red margins; stems may break if cankers weaken the stem.

Difenoconazole(125g/l)

Azoxystrobin(200g/l)

Chloronthalonil(720g/l)

Flutriafol(125g/l)

Tebuconazole(250g/l)

AZOXY TOP 325 SC

DOMAIN 25%EC

GLIDER 720 SC

JUPITER 125 SC

KING 250 EW

Fusarium root rot

Young plants stunted with chlorotic leaves; older plants with chlorotic leaves and some leaf drop; severely decayed roots which are hollow and dry.

Pymetrozine(500g/kg)

Carbendazim(500g/l)

CHESS 50 WG

CHARIOT 500 SC

Powdery mildew

White to gray powdery spots or large blotches on the surface of leaves,stems and fruits of host plant

Abamectin/Avermectin B1(20g/l)

Methoxyfenozide(80g/l)

Methiocarb(p)(200g/l)

EMPEROR TOP 100 SC

MESUROL 200 SL

Bacterial brown spot

Small, dark brown necrotic spots on leaves which is surrounded by a zone of yellow tissue; water soaked spots on pods turn brown and necrotic;

Abamectin/Avermectin B1(20g/l)

Methoxyfenozide(80g/l)

EMPEROR TOP 100 SC

Bean rust

small yellow/white spots on leaves. Later the spots become enlarged and show raised brick red rust pustules (uredinia). Normally these pustules are surrounded by a yellow halo. Premature leaf drop may occur if the disease is severe.

Hexaconazole(50g/l)

Tebuconazole(250g/l)

Tebuconazole(277g/l)

Fluoxastrobin(200g/l)

Eugenol(3g/l)

Fluazifop-P-butyl(fluazifop acid)150g/l)

COTAF 5%EC

DUCASSE 250 EW

EVITO T 477 EC

EXPLORER 0.3SL

FUSILADE FORTE 150 EC


Damping-off

Elongated sunken reddish-brown lesions on roots and stems at or below the soil line. The lesions girdle the stem, causing the death of the plant. 

Thiram(50%)

Carbendazim(500g/l)

Mancozeb (400g/l)

Fosetyl-aluminium(300g/l)

Metalaxyl(10%)

Imidacloprid(10%

Agrichem Flowable Thiram

CHARIOT 500 SC

PYRAMID 70 WP

SEED PLUS 30WS

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Pests

Symptoms

Active Ingredients


Aphids (Cowpea aphid, Pea aphid

leaves  are yellow  and distorted, necrotic spots,presence of honeydew which encourages the growth of sooty mold on the plants.

Acetamiprid(200g/kg)

Thiamethoxam(250g/kg)

Cypermethrin/Alphamethrin(100g/l)

Deltamethrin(cis-deltamethrin)(25g/l)

ACETA 20SP

ACTARA 25 WG

ACETAK 200 SL

ALFATOX 10 EC

ATOM 2.5 EC

White flies

yellowing of infested plant, honeydew present on the lower leaves and supports the growth of black sooty mould, 

Emamectin(p)(19g/l)

Abamectin/avermectin B1(18g/l)

Tebuconazole(250g/l)

Cypermethrin(p)(50g/l)

Acetamiprid(150g/l)

ESCORT 19 EC

DYNAMEC 1.8 EC

DUCASSE 250 EW

ASTER EXTRIM 20 SL

Thrips

Twisted pods,deformedwith reddish-brown russet marks ;poor pod set, stunted plants, leaves and flower wilt.

Abamectin/Avermectin B1(18g/l)

Acetamiprid(200g/kg)

Thiamethoxam(250g/kg)

Cypermethrin/Alphamethrin(100g/l)


ABALONE 18 EC

ACETA 20SP

ACTARA 25 WG

Pyriproxyfen (100g/l)

ALPHAGUARD 10 EC

BOTANIGARD ES 

Cutworms

Stems of young transplants or seedlings may be severed at soil line;  missing, cut, or wilted plants

Bifenthrin(80g/l)

Imidacloprid(350g/l)

Lambda-Cyhalothrin (5%)

Acetamiprid(3%)

Abamectin/Avermectin B1(1%)

BRIDGE 80SC

FORTUNE

LAMDASTAR 5% EC

KNOCKBECTIN 40 EC

Leafminers

Thin, white, winding trails on leaves; heavy mining can result in white blotches on leaves and leaves dropping from the plant prematurely; 

Abamectin/Avermectin B1(20g/l)

Chlorothalonil(720g/l)

Cyromazine(750g/kg)


ABAMITE 2%EC

AGRIMEC 18EC

DACONIL 720 SC

AVIRMEC 1.8 EC

CYROGUARD 75%WP

Caterpillars

Tunnel in bean pod and seeds.windowing in leaves

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.kurstaki

Bifenthrin(25g/l)

Cyantraniliprole 100g/l

Mancozeb (455g/l)

BIOKIL WP

BIFERAN 25 EC

Benevia 10 OD

BRIDGE 80SC

MANCOFLO 455SC

Spider mites (Two-spotted spider mite)

Leaves stippled with yellow; leaves may appear bronzed; webbing covering leaves;  leaves turn yellow and may drop.

Abamectin/Avermectin B1(18g/l)

Acetamiprid(80g/kg)

Clofentezine(500g/l)

Hexythiazox(100g/l)

Bifenthrin(25g/l)

ABALONE 18 EC

AMAZING TOP 100 WDG

APOLLO 50 SC

ARSUR 100EC

DEFENDER 2.5%EC

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insect pests  and control methods

Aphids - Mainly during flowering and podding 

 Pod borers - During flowering and podding

 Pod bugs - During podding Bruchids - At storage 

 At least three insecticide sprays, one before flowering and two at flowering and grain filing growth stages are necessary for the farmers to realize the potential yields of the varieties. The chemicals listed down here applied at manufacture are recommended rates should be used to control the respective insects.

 Aphids  - Dimethoate, Karate 

Pod borers - Decis, 

Pod sucking bugs -, Karate, dimethoate 

Bruchids - Actellic super 


Post Harvest

Harvesting 

The pods are harvested when dry and have turned brown. It is very easy to confuse pods damaged by insects as being mature. In the two varieties, the pods start drying at the base of the fruiting branch rather than on the top. Harvest the dry brown pods first as they are likely to be damaged by weather and insects if left in the field for too long. Harvest the dry, hard grains only. Dry the grains and apply actellic super for storage.

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