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Pepino
1 month ago

Pepino

Resource by Plusfarm

The Pepino melon (solanum muritacum) is an herbaceous Andean fruit grown mainly for its juicy and aromatic fruits. It has leaves resembling those plants and if left un-pruned grows into a low dense bush and has more a scrambling nature like a determinate tomato. It originated from the South America but can thrive well in tropical climate of Kenya and its soils. The fruit is typically a bright green or yellow green and often has some red or purple striations. The flesh is golden yellow when ripe with a narrow seed cavity. The melon is entirely edible; skin, flesh and seeds. The fruit is very sweet and juicy.


Varieties

Variety

Characteristics

Snowball

The plant develops white curds. The curds are smooth and firm. The texture of the cauliflower is fine. They are sweet to taste with a unique flavor. The leaves are extra-large in this variety which protects the curd.

Purple of Sicily

The amazing color makes it all the more palatable to your taste. What’s surprising is that, apart from the striking color, it changes to green when you cook it. It has got this sweet, delicious flavor which you will love.

Cheddar

Orange colored. The color is due to the fact that they contain lots of carotenes. Carotene is essential to keep your eyes healthy. The cheddar variety is very easy to cultivate. The light orange hue of the curd changes to a deeper shade when cooked. These varieties produce heavier curds and have more density.

Romanesco

This variety of cauliflower plants yields light green curds. The curds grow in a spiral shape and at maturity join together to form a large spiral which makes them look fantastic.

 

Plusfarm Kenya 

                                             Feeding Africa Sustainably

Cultivation

Ecological requirements

cool season crop tolerant to conditions areas with an altitude range of 1500-3000 M ASL.for optimal performance, a temperature range of 12°C-24°C is suitable. Production is affected by relatively high temperatures. Rainfall requirement annually is between 800-1200mm.

The plant should be planted at a spacing of 2-3 feet.

Soil requirements

The plant requires well-drained loam soils with a pH of 6.5-7.5. The plants should also be well watered and weeded. The soil depth requirement is 30 cm. Pepino plants may be grown in sandy, loamy, or even heavy clay soils, although they prefer alkaline, with an acid. Pepinos should be planted in sun exposure and in moist soil.

Crop Management

The crop also adapts well to greenhouse cultivation, training the plants up to 2 m tall, and obtaining yields that are 2-3 times larger than those obtained outdoors. They are propagated by cuttings since they are established easily without rooting hormones. It is grown in a manner similar to its relatives such as the tomato, though it grows naturally upright by habit and can thus be cultivated as a free-standing bush, though it is sometimes pruned.

Additionally, supports are sometimes used to keep the weight of the fruit from pulling the plant down. It has a fast growth rate and bears fruit within 4 to 6 months after planting. It is a perennial but is usually cultivated as an annual. Established bushes show some tolerance to drought stress, but this typically affects yield. The plants are parthenocarpic, meaning it needs no pollination to set fruit, though pollination will encourage fruiting.

 



Pests and Diseases / Commonly Used Agrochemicals

Disease and Symptoms

Active Ingredient

Commonly Used Agrochemicals

Damping off and Root Rot

Wilting and stunted growth.

Brown foliage

metalaxyl-M,

mancozeb

Mancozeb + Cymoxanil 

RIDOMIL GOLD® MZ 68WG

Mistress 

Anthracnose

Circular black or brown sunken lesions on fruit

Wet centers of lesions become purplish colored due to a mass of fungal spores.

 Azoxystrobin and Difenoconazole.

 Mancozeb + Cymoxanil

 AMISTAR TOP® 325SC


AGROMAX MZ720 WP Wettable Powder

Bacterial wilt

Circular black or brown sunken lesions

When wet the centers of lesions become purplish colored due to a mass of fungal spores. Water-soaked sunken lesions

Acibenzolar-S-Methyl (50.0%

 methyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene, or metam sodium with chloropicrin 

 

ACTIGARD 50WG

Soil fumigants

Bacterial canker

Scabby canker spots on the fruits.

Local lesions on fruits, stems and leaves, does not induce systemic infection on the plant.

Copper Oxychloride   500g/Kg

GREENCOP 500WP.

Bacterial soft Rot

Internal tissue of the fruit softens, turns into a watery mass and produces a foul smell.  

Copper          oxychloride Immunomodulator

Sulcop 50DF 

Enrich BM

Powdery mildew

Whitish talcum-like powdery growth on the upper leaf surface

Severely infected parts become chlorotic and eventually die.  Stunted growth is evident.

Difenoconazole

Azoxystrobin

Carbendazim + Triadimefon

Azoxystrobin 250g/L

Domain 25% EC

 Milestone 250SC

Ransom 600WP


AMITIV 250 SC 

Phytophthora blight

Foliar blight, fruit rot, and root rot spreads very fast when humidity and temperature are high. In severe cases, wilting occurs and the crop dies within a few days.

Dimethomorph + Mancozeb

ACROBAT MZ Wettable Powder Dimethomorph 90g/Kg + Mancozeb

Fusarium wilt

Vein clearing on young leaves and dropping of older lower leaves. Turn yellow and wilt. Brownish vascular tissues

Prochloraz 

Carbendazim

PEARL 20ml/20ltr.

Blossom End Rot

Affects the end of the fruit which starts with softening, slight shriveling, browning, blackening with increased shriveling, and sometimes secondary decay. 

calcium

Use calcium containing fertilizer AMIRAN CALMAG

PLUSFARM KENYA                                                Feeding Africa Sustainably

 

Pest and Symptoms

Active Ingredient

Commonly used Agrochemicals

Aphids

Causes leaves to yellow and distorted, necrotic spots on leaves and stunted shoots; Presence of honeydew which encourages the growth of sooty mold on the plants.

Azadirachtin

ACHOOK 0.15% EC Emulsifiable Concentrate;

FORTUNE AZA 1,000 ppm; NEEMARK EC 0.03%;

NEEMRAJ SUPER – 3000 0.3%; NIMBECIDINE Emulsifiable Concentrate 0.03%;

OZONEEM 1% EC

Cutworms

Stems of young transplants or seedlings may be severed at soil line; presence of leaf pieces partly pulled down into the soil and plants fall over 

Carbaryl

HYCARB 85 WP Wettable powder; SEVIN 85 S Wettable powder 

White flies

Whiteflies excrete honeydew, a clear, sugary liquid. This honeydew covers the lower leaves and supports the growth of black sooty mold, which may coat the entire plant.

Deltamethrin



Thiacloprid





Bifenthrin 25g/L

ATOM 2.5EC Emulsifiable Concentrate; DECIS 0.5 ULV Ultra Low volume; DECIS 2.5 EC (Emulsifiable   Concentrate); F

CALYPSO SC 480 Suspension Concentrate

BIFERAN 25 EC 

Nematodes

damage to the roots, leading even to the death of rootstocks of Solanaceae fruit crops

Fosthiazate 150g/l

NEMATHORIN® 150EC 

Flea beetle

Chewing damage on leaves results in a characteristic pitting or shot-holing. When leaves of host plants are waxy and thick

ACTELLIC 25 EC

Pirimiphos-Methyl

Leaf miner

mines are usually partially filled with frass and are irregular in shape. Tissue death (necrosis), during serious infestations, the leaves can become skeletonized. 

Abamectin 18g/L

AVID 1.8 EC 

PLUSFARM KENYA                                Feeding Africa Sustainably


Post Harvest

Fruits mature within 30-80 days after pollination. However, the fruits do not mature at the same time. Fruits should be picked only when completely mature in order to assure the highest flavour and sugar content.

Ripe flesh of the fruit is pale yellow-orange in colour. Fruits are harvested once they have fully ripened and can be stored for several days.

They can be eaten wholly and are also useful in making desserts and as addition to fruit salads. Don’t be tempted to harvest fruit before they are really yellow since they won’t have acquired full sweetness. Ripe flesh is a very pale yellow-orange in colour. Pick the ripest fruit in the cluster, and the others will continue to mature. Handle carefully since they bruise easily. They can be stored on the kitchen bench for several days, or in the refrigerator for several weeks provided the temperature is not below 5° C.

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