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Tree tomato
9 months ago

Tree tomato

Resource by Plusfarm

The tamarillo is a small tree or shrub in the flowering plant family Solanaceae (the nightshade family). It is best known as the species that bears the tamarillo, an egg-shaped edible fruit.

Fast-growing, brittle tree; shallow-rooted; reaching 10 to 18 ft (3-5.5 m) in height; rarely as much as 25 ft (7.5 m). The leaves are muskily odorous, evergreen, alternate, more or less heart-shaped at the base, ovate, pointed at the apex, 4 to 13 1/2 in (10-35 cm) long and 1 1/2 to 4 3/4 in (4-12 cm) broad, thin, softly hairy, with conspicuous coarse veins.

Borne in small, loose clusters near the branch tips, the fragrant flowers, 1/2 to 3/4 in (1.25-2 cm) wide, have 5 pale-pink or lavender, pointed lobes, 5 prominent yellow stamens, and green-purple calyx. The long-stalked, pendent fruit, borne singly, or in clusters of 3 to 12, is smooth, egg-shaped but pointed at both ends and capped with the persistent conical calyx. 


Varieties

VARIETY

SPECIAL  ATTRIBUTES

Gold-Mine

Are very large golden-yellow fruit with golden, highly flavored flesh, less bland than Solid Gold, but not acidic.

Inca Red

A yellow-fruited cultivar is said to be less acidic than the red types. When cooked the fruit is said to resemble the apricot in flavor.

Rothamer

Skin is bright red. Flesh golden-yellow, flavor sweet and exotic

Solid gold

It’s a large, oval shaped fruit. Skin is golden-orange in color, soft, less acidic in flavor

Red Oratia

It is a large-fruited red cultivar, oval to round in shape, with a sharp acid flavor.

Ruby Red

It’s a large, brilliant red fruit. Its Pulp dark red, tart, and flavorful

Plusfarm Kenya                                                                                                  Feeding Africa Sustainably


Cultivation

Ecological requirements

The tree tomato tamarillo also needs placement in full sun, though in hotter climates it can be planted in areas with partial shade. Due to the shallow root system of these trees, adequate wind protection may also be necessary, such as near the house. While they can be propagated by seed, cuttings are preferable with seedlings planted once they reach about 5 inches (12 cm.) tall. The spacing of additional plants are 6-10 feet (2-3 m.) apart

The tree tomato prefers subtropical climate, they grow in many parts of Kenya with rainfall between 600 and 4000 millimeters and annual temperatures between 15 and 25 °C. It is intolerant to frost (below -2 °C) and drought stress.

Soil requirement

Tree tomato plants grow best in light, deep, fertile soils, however, soils must be permeable since the plants are not tolerant to water-logging. They grow well on soils with a pH of 5 to 7.5.

The soils should be well-aerated soil. The soil must be fertile and light in texture and rich in organic matter. Good drainage is necessary since waterlogged soils can kill the plants. Tree tomatoes cannot survive in areas with a prolonged drought. They must have ample water during the dry season.

Planting & Management

During the planting stage dig holes measuring1.5 feet deep put the top soil on one side and the subsoil on the other. The distance from one plant to the next should be 1metre feet and the space between one row and the next should be 2 meters.

Mix one and a half wheelbarrow of well-prepared compost manure with two spadefuls of topsoil to plant the seedlings. Leave a shallow depression in every plant for placing the mulching material - only 1 foot of the tree tomato seedling should be buried while planting just enough to cover the root hairs. Selection of planting site is key; tree tomatoes do well when planted on land that has not had any crop for two or three seasons. 


Pests and Diseases / Commonly Used Agrochemicals


Disease and Symptoms

Active Ingredient

Commonly Used Agrochemicals

Damping off and Root Rot

Wilting and stunted growth.

Brown foliage

metalaxyl-M,

mancozeb

Mancozeb + Cymoxanil 

RIDOMIL GOLD® MZ 68WG

Mistress 

Anthracnose

Circular black or brown sunken lesions on fruit

Wet centers of lesions become purplish colored due to a mass of fungal spores.

 Azoxystrobin and Difenoconazole.

 Mancozeb + Cymoxanil

 AMISTAR TOP® 325SC
AGROMAX MZ720 WP Wettable Powder

Bacterial wilt

Circular black or brown sunken lesions

When wet the centers of lesions become purplish colored due to a mass of fungal spores. Water-soaked sunken lesions

Acibenzolar-S-Methyl (50.0%

 Methyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene, or metam sodium with chloropicrin 

 ACTIGARD 50WG

Soil fumigants

Bacterial canker

Scabby canker spots on the fruits.

Local lesions on fruits, stems and leaves, does not induce systemic infection on the plant.

Copper Oxychloride   500g/Kg

GREENCOP 500WP.

Bacterial soft Rot

Internal tissue of the fruit softens, turns into a watery mass and produces a foul smell.  

Copper oxychloride Immunomodulator

Sulcop 50DF 

Enrich BM

Powdery mildew

Whitish talcum-like powdery growth on the upper leaf surface

Severely infected parts become chlorotic and eventually die.  Stunted growth is evident.

Difenoconazole

Azoxystrobin

Carbendazim + Triadimefon

Azoxystrobin 250g/L

Domain 25% EC

 Milestone 250SC

Ransom 600WP
AMITIV 250 SC 

Phytophthora blight

Foliar blight, fruit rot, and root rot spreads very fast when humidity and temperature are high. In severe cases, wilting occurs and the crop dies within a few days.

Dimethomorph + Mancozeb

ACROBAT MZ Wettable Powder Dimethomorph 90g/Kg + Mancozeb

Fusarium wilt

Vein clearing on young leaves and dropping of older lower leaves. Turn yellow and wilt. Brownish vascular tissues

Prochloraz 

Carbendazim

PEARL 20ml/20ltr.

Blossom End Rot

Affects the end of the fruit which starts with softening, slight shriveling, browning, blackening with increased shriveling, and sometimes secondary decay. 

calcium

Use calcium containing fertilizer AMIRAN CALMAG

PLUSFARM KENYA     Feeding Africa Sustainably

 

Pest and Symptoms

Active Ingredient

Commonly used Agrochemicals

Aphids

Causes leaves to yellow and distorted, necrotic spots on leaves and stunted shoots; Presence of honeydew which encourages the growth of sooty mold on the plants.

Azadirachtin

ACHOOK 0.15% EC Emulsifiable Concentrate;

FORTUNE AZA 1,000 ppm; NEEMARK EC 0.03%;

NEEMRAJ SUPER – 3000 0.3%; NIMBECIDINE Emulsifiable Concentrate 0.03%;

OZONEEM 1% EC

Cutworms

Stems of young transplants or seedlings may be severed at soil line; presence of leaf pieces partly pulled down into the soil and plants fall over 

Carbaryl

HYCARB 85 WP Wettable powder; SEVIN 85 S Wettable powder 

Whiteflies

Whiteflies excrete honeydew, a clear, sugary liquid. This honeydew covers the lower leaves and supports the growth of black sooty mold, which may coat the entire plant.

Deltamethrin

Thiacloprid

Bifenthrin 25g/L

ATOM 2.5EC Emulsifiable Concentrate; DECIS 0.5 ULV Ultra-Low volume; DECIS 2.5 EC (Emulsifiable   Concentrate); F

CALYPSO SC 480 Suspension Concentrate

BIFERAN 25 EC 

Nematodes

damage to the roots, leading even to the death of rootstocks of Solanaceae fruit crops

Fosthiazate 150g/l

NEMATHORIN® 150EC 

Flea beetle

Chewing damage on leaves   results in a characteristic pitting or shot-holing. When leaves of host plants are waxy and thick

ACTELLIC 25 EC

Pirimiphos-Methyl

Leaf miner

mines are usually partially filled with frass and are irregular in shape. Tissue death (necrosis), during serious infestations, the leaves can become skeletonized. 

Abamectin 18g/L

AVID 1.8 EC 

PLUSFARM KENYA   Feeding Africa Sustainably



Post Harvest

Tree tomato bears fruits after 1.5 to 2 years. In favorable conditions, they grow very quickly and take a lesser span of time. Your fruit grown in Kenya is ready for harvest when they develop red or yellow color.

Harvest your fruits by pulling them from shrubs with a snapping motion. This ensures that the stalk remains attached. Unless you prune your tomato tree, they do not mature simultaneously.   

You can refrigerate your tree tomatoes for up to 10 weeks. High temperatures can cause the skin to discolor.

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