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Garlic
2 months ago

Garlic

Resource by Plusfarm

Garlic is a plant with long, flat grasslike leaves and a papery hood around the flowers. The greenish-white or pink flowers are found grouped together at the end of a long stalk. The stalk rises directly from the flower bulb, which is the part of the plant used as food and medicine. The bulb is made up of many smaller bulbs covered with a papery skin known as cloves. Although garlic is known as the "stinking rose" it is actually a member of the lily family.


Varieties

Varieties

Characteristics

Elephant type

Large head and huge cloves

Softneck

White, paper-like skin with a fairly strong taste and pungent smell

Hardneck

Characterizes with a tan and purple markings. It is a variety that produces bigger and fewer cloves on each head.


Cultivation

ECOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS

 

Climatic Requirements of Garlic farming includes:

        I.       Medium to high altitudes of 500- 2000 meters above sea level

    II.             Ideal temperatures of 12-24°c

   III.        Low humility; high rainfall distorts growth of garlic

    IV.      Adequate sunlight to enhance garlic flavor

Soils

While preparing to plant garlic, analyze the soil. Garlic performs well in most Kenyan grounds as long as they drain water well. The plant performs poorly in waterlogged soil.

Clay soil should be avoided because they hinder the growth of the bulbs. The pH should range between 5.5 to 6.8. Mixing the soil with organic manure helps improve bulb formation.

 

Spacing and planting

It is advisable to observe the spacing of 30cm between rows and 15cm or 6inches from each plant. Trenches should be at least 25 cm deep. “Tighter spacing in the beds will produce a greater number of smaller bulbs for a higher yield”. Water can be slightly sprinkled at the rows and stopped when the soil surface becomes damp to avoid over-wetting that may cause rotting of the cloves before they even grow.

Mulching-Mulching can be applied to the growing garlic to prevent the seeds from the high humidity especially during rainy and cold seasons. A farmer can place a layer of grass, chopped leaves, and straw. The layer is removed when the temperatures rise to 55-60°c when garlic seeds start to sprout. Good fertilizer that contains nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium can be applied to enhance the good growth and fertility of the garlic. However, one should be keen while applying to avoid damaging the actual plant.


Pests and Diseases / Commonly Used Agrochemicals


Pests and Symptoms

Active Ingredient

Commonly used Agrochemicals

 

Nematode

Patches of variable crop growth with stunted, chlorotic, and excessively wilted plants. Often the number and size of leaves is reduced.

 Azadirachtine (0.15%)

 ACHOOK 0.15% EC

 

Leaf miner

Wiggly lines or blisters on leaves, Blotchy mined leaves that become brown and papery

 Abamectin|Avermectin B1 (50G/L)

Cyromazine (750G/KG)

Abamectin|Avermectin B1 (18 g / L)

Chlorantraniliprole (45 g / L)

ALONZE 50 EC

CYROGUARD 75% WP 

VOLIAM TARGO 063 SC B

 

Thrips

Plant leaves may turn pale, splotchy, and silvery, then die. Injured plants are twisted, discolored and scarred

Abamectin|Avermectin B1 (50G/L)

Beauveria bassiana

Thiacloprid (480G/L)

Chlorantraniliprole (DPX E-2Y45) (200G/L)

ALONZE 50 EC

BIOPOWER 1.5 LIQUID

CALYPSO 

CORAGEN 20SC

 

Caterpillar

Hole in Leaves/Missing Leaf Tips

Indoxacarb (p) (150G/L)

Flubendiamide (480G/L)

Chlorantraniliprole (DPX E-2Y45) (200G/L)

AVAUNT 150 EC

BELT 480 SC

CORAGEN 20SC

 

Diamond back moth

Entire plants may become riddled with holes; windowing entire plants may become riddled with holes entire plants may become riddled with holes

Flubendiamide (480G/L)

Dbm 

Beauveria bassiana (150 g/ L)

 BELT 480 SC

BIOPOWER 1.5 LIQUID

 

Aphids

Stunting and leaf curling and twisting, the honeydew they secrete, and the associated sooty mold

Beauveria bassiana (150 g/ L)

Thiacloprid (480G/L)

Pymetrozine (500G/KG)

BIOPOWER 1.5 LIQUID

CALYPSO

CHESS 50 WG

 

Cutworm

Seedlings/Young Shoots Sheared at Base

Cypermethrin|Alphamethrin (100G/L)

Lambda-Cyhalothrin (25G/L)

DEGREE 100 EC

TATA UMEME 2.5 EC

 

Beetles

Severely wilted young plants and plants with dry young leaves. Plant death follows shortly after these symptoms

Lambda-Cyhalothrin (17.5G/L)

Lambda-Cyhalothrin 

(25G/KG)

Lambda-Cyhalothrin (50G/L)

DUDUTHRIN 1.7 EC

KARATE 2.5 WG

KARATE ZEON

 

Whitefly

Leaves will wilt, turn pale or yellow, growth will be stunted, and eventually leaves may shrivel and drop off the plant; Honeydew presence

Lambda-Cyhalothrin (25G/L)

Spirotetramat (75G/L) 

Flubendiamide (100G/L)

TATA UMEME 2.5 EC

TIHAN OD 175

 

Plusfarm Kenya.                                                                                 Feeding Africa Sustainably

 

Disease and Symptoms

Active Ingredient

Commonly used Agrochemicals

 

Damping-off

Seeds become soft and rot, failing to germinate. Water-soaked lesions girdling the stems at the soil line can be seen. 

Thiram (50 %)

Chlorothalonil (500G/L) 

Azoxystrobin (60G/L)

AGRICHEM FLOWABLE THIRAM

COMPLIANT 560 SC

METACOZEB 72 WP

 

Powdery mildew

Whitish powdery growth on leaves, petioles, and stems. Leaves become chlorotic. Heavy infections cause distortion of flowers.

Metalaxyl-M (339 g / l)

Azoxystrobin (250G/L)

APRON XL

MILESTONE 250 SC

 

Leaf spots

Brown or black water-soaked spots on the foliage, sometimes with a yellow halo, usually uniform in size. Under dry conditions, the spots have a speckled appearance.

Mancozeb (640G/KG

Azoxystrobin (250G/L) 

METACOZEB 72 WP

MILESTONE 250 SC

 

Xanthomonas black rot

Symptoms are initially expressed as 'v' shaped lesions of the leaf margins and a blackening of the veins and the vascular system in the leaves, stems, and roots (hence the name black rot). Eventually, whole leaves can yellow, wilt and die back.

Copper oxychloride (85%)

Copper oxide|Cuprous oxide (60G/L)

ISACOP

MASTERCOP 60 SC

 

Soft rot

Infected plants have small water-soaked lesions near the base of their petioles which become soft, sunken, and brown as infection advances.

 

Metalaxyl 80g/kg + Mancozeb 640g/kg 

Oshothane® 80WP (P) 

Matco® 72WP (C) 

Bio-Cure B

 

Downy mildew

Leaf yellowing is the most noticeable symptom 

Mancozeb (640G/KG)

Mancozeb (64%) 

Metalaxyl (8%)

RIDOMIL GOLD MZ 68 WG

TATA MASTER

 

White blister

White 'blisters' appear on the underside of the plant's leaves, with a light green or yellow discoloration on the upper leaf surface.

Mancozeb (640G/KG)

Mancozeb (64%) 

Metalaxyl (8%)

RIDOMIL GOLD MZ 68 WG

TATA MASTER

 

Black rot

Initially appear as yellow to light brown patches at leaf margins; veins later darken in infected leaves. Infected leaves later turn brown and dry out, leaving angular-shaped lesions on the leaf margin. 

Copper oxide|Cuprous oxide (60G/L)

Copper hydroxide (66.7%)

MASTER COP 60 SC

VITRA 40 WG

 

Plusfarm Kenya.             Feeding Africa  Sustainably                                                                                      

 


Post Harvest

Garlic farmers are advised on monitoring from around 4-6months after planting. First, they should inspect the foliage.The best guide is to observe whether the garlic bulbs have turned brown or yellow. Most garlic farmers go wrong when they harvest too early or late this surely affects the produce.After harvest, the farmer should place the garlic in a dry place that has good ventilation to cure for several weeks. They should be stored to cool at temperatures just above 32°c.Once the garlic is dry, the farmer should cut the tops down to 1 inch, trim the roots and clean them. Garlic can stay up to 6-7 months if they are stored well.

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