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Courgettes
2 months ago

Courgettes

Resource by Plusfarm

Zucchini and other summer squashes, from which the immature fruit is used as a fresh vegetable, develop very rapidly. The first marketable fruits can be harvested 50 to 60 days after planting or 3 to 6 days after the appearance of the female flower. During the harvest season, the fruits are harvested two to three times per week. 

Crop yields for summer squash (immature fruits) are 7 to 12 t/ha. Unless grown for seed, mature fruits are not marketable, so plants are removed when yields become too low. Indicative figures for seed yield of zucchini and other squashes are 400 to 1500 kg/ha. In seed production, isolation between fields of different Cucurbita species is recommended, not only for the reason of purity but also for obtaining maximum yields (pollen of other species may cause reduced fruit set). 



Varieties

Variety

Characteristics

Ambassador F1 Courgette

An early variety with dark green fruits.


Zucchini Courgette


 

Smooth skin of really dark green. Slim and cylindrical with excellent internal quality. 

Midnight F1 Courgette

A slightly speckled courgette with a good flavor, compact, and bushy plant. Ideal for growing in containers. Completely spineless and so easier to pick.

Defender F1 Courgette

The heavy yielding variety which is resistant to Cucumber Mosaic Virus. Deep green fruits are produced all summer long if cropped regularly. Bush habit.


Battani F1 Courgette

An early high yielding variety producing large quantities of very dark green small fruits.



Cultivation



Environmental requirements

warm climate vegetables requiring an optimum temperature of 15-22C. They require an optimum water supply of 800mm during the vegetative growth period, however, with irrigation they can be grown in dry areas with little rainfall.

The altitude of 500-2000 meters

Courgettes can be grown all-year-round except during periods of heavy rains as they destroy the flowers and promote diseases like mildews.

Soil Requirements

Wide range of well-drained light loam, fertile soils, with PH of 5.5-7.5.


Fertilizer application

Top-dress your zucchini after 4 weeks with MEA CAN 26% at the rate of 10g per plant. 

Land preparation

Land preparation should be done early to allow for weeds to dry and decompose before planting.

Transplanting

Plant 2-3 seeds in hills or rows, 2cm deep at a spacing of 60-100cm by 60cm. After emergence, thin to one plant per hill.

Cover seeds with loose soil.

PLUSFARM KENYA             Feeding Africa Sustainably



Pests and Diseases / Commonly Used Agrochemicals


Disease and Symptoms

Active Ingredient

Commonly used Agrochemicals

Leaf Blotch

Infection is characterized by purplish to brown blotches and in later stages by large necrotic spots. These spots often occur at the end of a leaflet and are wedge-shaped. This fungus can also attack the fruit stalk, cap, and fruit.

Carbendazim 500g/l 

mancozeb 80%

Metalaxyl 8% WP + Mancozeb 64%

PEARL Extra®500SC

Oshothane® 80WP 

Matco® 72WP 

Leaf Spot

Begin as round purple spots on upper leaf surfaces. Center of the spot becomes tan or gray, then almost white with a purple border. Can attack immature petioles, fruit stalks, runners, and caps of susceptible cultivars.

Copper oxychloride 50%

Difenoconazole (250G/L)

CUPRAVIT 50 WP

DOMAIN 25% EC

Gray mold (Botrytis) 

Major fruit rot disease of strawberries. Infection usually starts early in the season as blossom blight, blighting of the buds and blooms and rotting of the green or ripe berries. It progresses downwards infecting the berries, stems, and leaves.

Chlorothalonil (720G/L)

Thymol (6.4%)

Geraniol (6.4%) 

Eugenol (3.2%)

KATERINA 720 SC

HAWK 16 CS

Downy Mildew

Pale green to yellow spots form on the upper surface of leaves, and later turn brown. Leaf spots are angularly bounded by leaf veins.  Dark purplish-grey fuzz forms on the underside of the leaf

Mancozeb (700G/KG) 

Cymoxanil (60G/KG)

Fosetyl-aluminium (800G/KG)

Mancozeb 640G/KG

metalaxyl-M 40G/KG

Fosetyl-aluminium 80%

GLOBE 76 WP

FOSET 800WP

AMIDIL 68 WG 

CHANCETYL ELITE 80 WDG

Powdery Mildew

Appear as pale yellow leaf spots. White powdery spots can form on both upper and lower leaf surfaces, and quickly expand into large blotches.

azoxystrobin(250g/l)

Carbendazim(275g/l)

flusilazole(125g/l)

BEYOND 25 SC

DISCOVERY 400 SC

Damping off

Seedlings start falling over. In slightly older plants, the leaves lose their turgor or the leaf tips turn yellow,

Fosetyl aluminium 800g/kg

ALIAL 80 WP

Gummosis

The canker gradually grows darker, and the tissue collapses farther into a pronounced cavity, lined with a dark green, velvety layer of fruiting fungus. the appearance of a slightly water-soaked, paler-green area

Mancozeb (64%) 

Cymoxanil (8%)

Mancozeb (800G/KG)

MISTRESS 72 WP 

 

MILTHANE SUPER 

Leathery Rot 

 Occurs on either green or ripe fruits. The rotted area is light brown in the center and shades into purple at the edge. In the late stages of decay, the fruit becomes tough and leathery.

 Metalaxyl

/ Mefenoxam

 Ridomil Gold EC

Anthracnose fruit rot

Soft to firm brown to black spots on green fruits and dark purple spots on ripe fruits. The spots enlarge rapidly on the ripe fruits until the fruits rot. The surface of the lesion can become covered with pink to orange masses of spores.

Propineb (70%) 

Cymoxanil (6%)

Mancozeb (700G/KG)

MILRAZ WP 76

 

ZETANIL 76 WP

 

Pests and Symptoms

Active Ingredient

Commonly used Agrochemicals

Cucumber Beetle

Adults feed on leaves and can stunt plant growth. Look for holes and yellowing and wilting leaves. 

Lambda-Cyhalothrin (50G/L)

Thiamethoxam (250G/KG)

Azadirachtine (.03%)

DUDUTHRIN SUPER

FINAL FLIGHT

NIMBECIDINE

Vine borer

When you look at a wilting plant closely, you might notice holes near the base of the plant.

The first symptom of a borer attack is wilting of affected plants

 Lambda-Cyhalothrin (50G/L)

 DUDUTHRIN SUPER

Whitefly 

Exudation of sticky honeydew. It's feeding on squash frequently causes crop leaves to turn whitish or silver, hence the name Silverleaf whitefly.

Thiamethoxam (250G/KG)

Acetamiprid (200G/KG)

Azadirachtine (.03%)
Lambda-Cyhalothrin (25G/L)

FINAL FLIGHT 25 WG

MANIK 20 SP

NIMBECIDINE

TATA UMEME

Aphids

The infected plants have deformed leaves and a mottled appearance.

Pyrethrins (4%)

Acetamiprid (200G/KG)

Azadirachtine (.03%)

Cypermethrin|Alphamethrin (10G/L)

Lambda-Cyhalothrin (25G/L)

Lambda-Cyhalothrin (50G/L)

Thiamethoxam (250G/KG)

FLOWER DS EC 

MANIK 20 SP

NIMBECIDINE

TATA ALPHA 10 EC

TATA UMEME

DUDUTHRIN SUPER

FINAL FLIGHT

Thrips

Silver-grey patches on leaves and the black dots of their excreta indicate their presence in the crop. The vigor of the plant is reduced by the loss of chlorophyll.

Pyrethrins (4%)

Azadirachtine (.03%)

Cypermethrin|Alphamethrin (10G/L)

Lambda-Cyhalothrin (25G/L)

Abamectin|Avermectin B1 (18 g / l) 

Chlorantranilipole (45 g / l)

FLOWER DS EC 

NIMBECIDINE

TATA ALPHA 10 EC

 

TATA UMEME

VOLIAM TARGO 063 SC

Leaf miner

blotch-shaped mines in the leaves.

Azadirachtine (.03%)

Abamectin|Avermectin B1 (18 g / l) 

Chlorantranilipole (45 g / l)

NIMBECIDINE

VOLIAM TARGO 063 SC

Squash Vine Borer

Leaves of the plant will likely start to wilt inexplicably. Look for holes at the base of the plant.

Cypermethrin|Alphamethrin (10G/L)

TATA ALPHA 10 EC

Jassid

Sucks sap from the underside of leaves and leaf buds. When jassids are abundant, cotton growth is stunted, the leaves turn downwards and heavy fruit loss may occur on pre-flowering plants. Leaves turn pale and a rust-red colour develops at the edges. During a severe attack, leaf shedding occurs.

Lambda-Cyhalothrin (25G/L)

TATA UMEME 2.5 EC

Squash beetles

Feeding on leaves produces small white dots, or   stipples, and leaves will eventually appear tattered.

Large numbers of squash bugs will cause leaves to yellow and die 

Acetamiprid (200G/L)

TWIGA ACE 20% SL

Spider mites

This injury produces tiny white or yellow spots or "stippling" on leaves and needles.

The plant looks bronzed and has a yellowed discoloration.

Webbing indicates a spider mite infestation.

Abamectin|Avermectin B1 (18 g / l) 

Chlorantranilipole (45 g / l)

VOLIAM TARGO 063 SC

PLUSFARM KENYA                                                           Feeding Africa Sustainably


Post Harvest

Courgettes develop very rapidly and unless grown for seed, the mature fruits are not marketable.

Harvesting starts 2 to 2 and a half months when the fruits are 10-20cm long and continues for 2-3 months. It is done by cutting the fruits off the stem, leaving a short peduncle on the fruit, rather than pulling fruits off to avoid damaging the plant. Regular picking (about three times a week, or on a daily basis depending on productivity) should be done to encourage the production of new fruits. Courgettes are best eaten fresh or can be stored for a few days in the fridge.

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