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Cow Peas
2 months ago

Cow Peas

Resource by Plusfarm

Cowpeas are leguminous crops that are used to provide green Cowpea, which is a food legume. All cultivated cowpeas are grouped into species, which are subdivided into four cultivar groups. They can be distinguished from one another by different physiological factors, such as seed size and colour, taste, yield, and maturity time. The plant is an herbaceous legume showing considerable adaptation to warm climates with adequate rainfall. 


Varieties

Common Cowpeas Variety

Katumani 80 (K80)

MTW 63, 610

KVU 27-1, 419

Machakos 66 (M66)

Kunde 1

Kitui Black Eye


Cultivation


Environmental requirements

Altitudes : 0-2000 meters above sea level, depending on the variety.

Rainfall; Are relatively drought-tolerant thus between 300-700mm. Too much rain or long dry spells reduce yields. Excessive rainfall during flowering causes flowers abortion while dry weather conditions are important during harvesting.

Temperature; Cowpeas perform best in warm conditions. An optimum temperature of between 20-35°C is fit for their growth. Extreme temperatures affect crop growth and development

Soil Requirements

Preferably well-drained fertile soils with an optimum PH of 5.5-6.5 promote better production.

Fertilizer application

During planting, apply DAP,

Cowpeas does not require too much nitrogen fertilizer because it fixes its own nitrogen from the air using the nodules in its roots. Application of excess nitrogenous fertilizers promotes lush vegetative growth, delays maturity, may reduce seed yield, and may suppress nitrogen fixation.

Land preparation

& Planting

Should be done early to allow for weeds to dry and decompose before planting.

Planting should be done at the onset of the rains if production is rain-fed. Delayed sowing may cause crop failure or reduced yield.

PLUSFARM KENYA                           Feeding Africa Sustainably


Pests and Diseases / Commonly Used Agrochemicals

 

Disease and Symptoms

Active Ingredients

Commonly Used Agrochemical

Angular leaf spot

Small angular, brown or straw colored, water-soaked spots on the leaves.

Spots expands, eventually covering the entire area between leaf veins.

Dimethomorph (450g/kg)

Azoxystrobin (350g/kg)

Mancozeb (640g/kg)

Metalaxyl-M (40g/kg)

Difenoconazole (125g/l)

AFFAIR TOP 800WDG

AMIDIL 68WG

AMISTAR TOP 325 SC

AMITIV 250 SC

AZOXY TOP 325 SC

Anthracnose

Small, dark brown to black lesions on cotyledons; oval or eye-shaped lesions on stems which turn sunken and brown with purple to red margins; stems may break if cankers weaken the stem.

Difenoconazole (125g/l)

Azoxystrobin (200g/l)

Chloronthalonil (720g/l)

Flutriafol (125g/l)

Tebuconazole (250g/l)

AZOXY TOP 325 SC

DOMAIN 25%EC

GLIDER 720 SC

JUPITER 125 SC

KING 250 EW

Fusarium root rot

Young plants stunted with chlorotic leaves; older plants with chlorotic leaves and some leaf drop; severely decayed roots that are hollow and dry.

Pymetrozine (500g/kg)

Carbendazim (500g/l)

CHESS 50 WG

CHARIOT 500 SC

Powdery Mildew

White to gray powdery spots or large blotches on the surface of leaves, stems, and fruits of host plant

Abamectin/Avermectin B1 (20g/l)

Methoxyfenozide (80g/l)

Methiocarb(p) (200g/l)

EMPEROR TOP 100 SC

MESUROL 200 SL

Bacterial Brown Spot

Small, dark brown necrotic spots on leaves which are surrounded by a zone of yellow tissue; water-soaked spots on pods turn brown and necrotic;

Abamectin/Avermectin B1(20g/l)

Methoxyfenozide (80g/l)

EMPEROR TOP 100 SC

Bean Rust

Small yellow/white spots on leaves. Later the spots become enlarged and show raised brick red rust pustules (uredinia). Normally these pustules are surrounded by a yellow halo. Premature leaf drop may occur if the disease is severe.

Hexaconazole (50g/l)

Tebuconazole (250g/l)

Tebuconazole (277g/l)

Fluoxastrobin (200g/l)

Eugenol (3g/l)

Fluazifop-P-butyl (fluazifop acid)150g/l)

COTAF 5%EC

DUCASSE 250 EW

EVITO T 477 EC

EXPLORER 0.3SL

FUSILADE FORTE 150 EC

Damping-off

Elongated sunken reddish-brown lesions on roots and stems at or below the soil line. The lesions girdle the stem, causing the death of the plant. 

Thiram(50%)

Carbendazim(500g/l)

Mancozeb (400g/l)

Fosetyl-aluminium(300g/l)

Metalaxyl(10%)

Imidacloprid (10%

Agrichem Flowable Thiram

CHARIOT 500 SC

PYRAMID 70 WP

SEED PLUS 30WS

PLUSFARM KENYA                                     Feeding Africa Sustainably

 

Pests and Symptoms

Active Ingredients

Commonly used Agrochemicals

Aphids(Cowpea aphid, Pea aphid)

Leaves are yellow and distorted, necrotic spots, presence of honeydew which encourages the growth of sooty mold on the plants.

Acetamiprid(200g/kg)

Thiamethoxam(250g/kg)

Cypermethrin/ Alphamethrin (100g/l)

Deltamethrin(cis-deltamethrin) (25g/l)

ACETA 20SP

ACTARA 25 WG

ACETAK 200 SL

ALFATOX 10 EC

ATOM 2.5 EC

White Flies

Yellowing of the infested plant, honeydew present on the lower leaves and supports the growth of black sooty mold, 

Emamectin(p)(19g/l)

Abamectin/ avermectin B1(18g/l)

Tebuconazole (250g/l)

Cypermethrin(p) (50g/l)

Acetamiprid (150g/l)

ESCORT 19 EC

DYNAMEC 1.8 EC

DUCASSE 250 EW

ASTER EXTRIM 20 SL

Thrips

Twisted pods, deformed with reddish-brown russet marks; poor pod set, stunted plants, leaves, and flower wilt.

Abamectin/Avermectin B1 (18g/l)

Acetamiprid (200g/kg)

Thiamethoxam (250g/kg)

Cypermethrin/ Alphamethrin (100g/l)

ABALONE 18 EC

ACETA 20SP

ACTARA 25 WG

Pyriproxyfen (100g/l)

ALPHAGUARD 10 EC

BOTANIGARD ES 

Cutworms

Stems of young transplants or seedlings may be severed at soil line; missing, cut, or wilted plants

Bifenthrin (80g/l)

Imidacloprid (350g/l)

Lambda-Cyhalothrin (5%)

Acetamiprid (3%)

Abamectin/Avermectin B1 (1%)

BRIDGE 80SC

FORTUNE

LAMDASTAR 5% EC

KNOCKBECTIN 40 EC

Leaf miners

Thin, white, winding trails on leaves; heavy mining can result in white blotches on leaves and leaves dropping from the plant prematurely; 

Abamectin/Avermectin B1(20g/l)

Chlorothalonil (720g/l)

Cyromazine (750g/kg)

ABAMITE 2%EC

AGRIMEC 18EC

DACONIL 720 SC

AVIRMEC 1.8 EC

CYROGUARD 75%WP

Caterpillars

Tunnel in bean pod and seeds: windowing in leaves

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.kurstaki

Bifenthrin (25g/l)

Cyantraniliprole 100g/l

Mancozeb (455g/l)

BIOKIL WP

BIFERAN 25 EC

Benevia 10 OD

BRIDGE 80SC

MANCOFLO 455SC

Spider mites (Two-spotted spider mite)

Leaves stippled with yellow; leaves may appear bronzed; webbing covering leaves; leaves turn yellow and may drop.

Abamectin/Avermectin B1 (18g/l)

Acetamiprid (80g/kg)

Clofentezine (500g/l)

Hexythiazox (100g/l)

Bifenthrin(25g/l)

ABALONE 18 EC

AMAZING TOP 100 WDG

APOLLO 50 SC

ARSUR 100EC

DEFENDER 2.5%EC

PLUSFARM KENYA                                 Feeding Africa Sustainably


Post Harvest

 Pods should be harvested when all have turned brown and are drooping. After threshing, grains should be dried well before storage. To protect grain against storage pests, super actellic dust should be applied at 50g per bag. Neem leaves or wood-ash at 4-6 kg of ash per bag may also be used.

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