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Millet
5 months ago

Millet

Resource by Plusfarm

Millet is a small grained cereals and nutritious crop is grown in Kenya as a Cash crop by a majority of small-scale farmers in the warm regions of Kenya with altitudes of about 1600m above sea level. Millet is a cereal crop plant belonging to the grass family. 


Varieties

Variety

Optimal production altitude (masl)

Maturity (Months)

Potential

 P224

1150-1750

3-4

10

Gulu E

250-1500

4

8

KAT/FMI

250-1150

3

7

Lanet/FM1

1750-2300

5-7

7


Cultivation

ECOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS

Planting

This stag involves seed sowing, germination and about 2-3 weeks after the emergence of the seedlings.to promote uniform germination and break seed dormancy, soak seeds in OPTIMIZER 20ml/1l overnight.

Newly emerged seedlings are sprayed with LAVENDER 20 ML/20L OR GATIT SUPER STAT 50 G/20L OR legendary 40ml/20l or PLANT SOUL 20l or ZINC GOLD 10ml/20l.

Application of DAP during planting is very important.

These fertilizers ensure there’s rapid rood development, facilitate balanced plant growth and enhance the natural defence system of the young crop.

Vegetative growth stage.

 

Crop begin to grow vigorously and photosynthesize in order to accumulate enough food resources for use in the reproduction stage. The application of nitrogenous fertilizers is highly encouraged.

Spray the crop with lavender LAVENDER 20 ML/20L or GATIT SUPER STAT 50 G/20L.

Top dressing with CAN is done when the crop is about 30 cm high. Other nitrogenous basal fertilizers like NPK 23.23.0, can also be applied.

These fertilizers promote a faster vegetative growth, increase crop resistance to diseases and weather stress and ensure balanced growth of the crops.

Reproduction Stage.

 

This stage entails flowering, fertilization, grain filling, and maturity of the crop.

Spray the crop with GATIT SUPER FLOWERS & FRUITS 50 g/20l or DIMIPHITE 20ml/20l or LEGENDARY 40ml/20l or BIODISTINCTION XTRA 20ML/2OL.

Potassium-rich basal fertilizers e.g. NPK 17.17.17 should also be applied.

They also improve quality, increase crop growth as well as improve crop productivity and promote tillering, among other benefits.


Pests and Diseases / Commonly Used Agrochemicals


diseases

Symptoms

Active Ingredient

Commonly used Agrochemicals

Damping-off

The infection causes rotting of seeds before they emerge as well as seedlings after emergence from the soil.

 

 

Grey leaf spot

Leaf lesions, discoloration (chlorosis), and foliar blight. rectangular, brown to gray necrotic lesions that run parallel to the leaf, spanning the spaces between the secondary leaf veins.

Difenoconazole (125G/L) Azoxystrobin (250G/L)

Tebuconazole (200G/L) Trifloxystrobin (100G/L)


AMISTAR TOP 325 SC

NATIVO SC 300 (

Northern leaf blight

Canoe-shaped lesions are 1 inch to 6 inches long. The lesions are initially bordered by gray-green margins. They eventually turn tan colored and may contain dark areas of fungal sporulation.

Difenoconazole (125G/L) Azoxystrobin (250G/L)


AMISTAR TOP 325 SC

Corn rust

Lesions begin as flecks on leaves that develop into small tan spots.

Spots turn into elongated brick-red to cinnamon-brown pustules with a jagged appearance.

Found on both upper AND lower leaf surfaces (unlike southern rust)

Pustules turn dark brown to black late in the season.

Difenoconazole (125G/L) Azoxystrobin (250G/L)

Copper oxychloride (50%)

Tebuconazole (200G/L) 

Trifloxystrobin (100G/L)


AMISTAR TOP 325 SC

CUPRAVIT 50 WP

NATIVO SC 300

Loose kernel smut

formation of thin pointed galls, which burst out releasing dark brown spores. Spores are blown away leaving long dark pointed, curved structures in the central part of the gall. 

 Captan

CAPTAN 400

Covered kernel smut

All kernels are destroyed and replaced with cone-shaped galls. 

Captan

CAPTAN 400

Head smut

Large dark brown smut galls emerge in the place of the panicle. Initially, the galls are covered by a whitish layer but later break open releasing spores.

 Tebuconazole

 DUCASSE 250 EW

Top downy mildew

The infected plants develop thick, stiff, twisted, pale green leaves with bumpy surfaces.

The plants do not produce heads in severe cases of infection.

Metalaxyl-M 40g/Kg

Mancozeb 640g/Kg

RIDOMIL GOLD® MZ 68 WG

Rust

Mostly appears on the leaves as small raised pustules which then rapture releasing reddish-brown spores.

These occur on both sides of the leaf.

Difenoconazole (125G/L) Azoxystrobin (250G/L)

Copper oxychloride (50%)

AMISTAR TOP 325 SC


CUPRAVIT 50 WP

PLUSFARM KENYA     PAMS KENYA Resource Centre                            Feeding Africa Sustainably



Pests

Symptoms

Active Ingredient

Commonly used Agrochemicals

Stem borer

Tunnels are visible,  bore holes straight into the centre of the stem. stunted growth and production of sterile or poorly developed ear heads. 

 Deltamethrin (cis-deltamethrin) (25G/L)

Lambda-Cyhalothrin (17.5G/L)

Chlorpyrifos (480G/L)

 DECIS 2.5 EC


DUDUTHRIN 1.7 EC


DURSBAN 4 EC 

Termites

hollowed root system filled with soil. Attacked plants can be pulled up by hand easily because the roots are damaged.

 Imidacloprid 700g/Kg

Imidacloprid 200g/L

Fipronil 50g/L

Chlorpyriphos 480g/L


 IMIDA TOP 70 WDG 

KOHINOR 200 SL 

MORTEL 50 SC 

PYRINEX 48 EC 

weevils

Bore holes in grains

Spinosad

SPINTOR 0.125% Dust; TRACER 480 SC Soluble Concentrate

Fall Armyworm

moist sawdust-like frass near the funnel and upper leaves, the leaves appear ragged or torn causing windowing.

 Indoxacarb(p)(150g/l)

Flubendiamide(480g/l)

Chlorantranilipole(200g/l)

Lambda-Cyhalothrin(17.5g/l)

Chlorpyrifos (480G/L)

Carbosulfan(250g/l)



AVAUNT 150 EC

BELT 480 SC

CORAGEN 20 SC

DUDUTHRIN 1.7EC


DURSBAN 4 EC

MARSHAL 250 EC

African bollworm

Parallel rows of holes are signs of feeding on unopened leaves,reduced leaf area

Azadirachtin











Deltamethrin

ACHOOK 0.15% EC Emulsifiable Concentrate; FORTUNE AZA 1,000 ppm; NEEMARK EC 0.03%; NEEMRAJ SUPER – 3000 0.3%; NIMBECIDINE Emulsifiable Concentrate 0.03%; OZONEEM 1% EC

ATOM 2.5EC Emulsifiable Concentrate; DECIS 0.5 ULV Ultra Low volume; DECIS 2.5 EC (Emulsifiable Concentrate); FARM – X 2.5EC; KATRIN EC Emulsifiable Concentrate 

Sorghum midge

developing seeds shrink and flatten. Damaged panicles have small, transparent midge pupa attached to the tips of the damaged spikelets.



Birds

The major destructive species is the Quelea Quelea birds. Others include weaver birds, bishop’s birds, etc. these birds feed on the seeds causing heavy yield losses.



cutworm

missing, cut, or wilted plants.



Lambda-Cyhalothrin (17.5G/L)

Bifenthrin (25G/L)

Cypermethrin|Alphamethrin (100G/L)

DUDUTHRIN 1.7 EC


BRIGADE 25 EC

BESTOX 100 EC


armyworm

mass of holes on leaves and the whorl (funnel), ragged edges, and larval frass. Young larvae skeletonize the leaf lamina. 

Lambda-Cyhalothrin (17.5G/L)

Lufenuron (50G/L)

Abamectin|Avermectin B1 (18 g / l)

Chlorantranilipole  (45 g / l)


DUDUTHRIN 1.7 EC


MATCH 50 EC

VOLIAM TARGO 063SC

aphids

reduced tillering, stunting, and early leaf senescence. 


Carbosulfan (250G/L)

Beta-cyfluthrin (45G/L) 


Imidacloprid (100G/L)

Imidacloprid (350G/L)

Thiamethoxam (35G/L)

Cypermethrin|Alphamethrin (100G/L)

MARSHAL 250 EC 

THUNDER OD 145


GAUCHO FS 350 

CRUISER 350 FS


BESTOX 100 EC (

thrips

distorted leaves that turn brownish around the edges and curve upward.  

Carbosulfan (250G/L)

Imidacloprid (350G/L)

Thiamethoxam (35G/L)


MARSHAL 250 EC

GAUCHO FS 350

CRUISER 350 FS

Leafhopper

yellow streaks, dieback, or dwarf. Stunted growth, small cobs with open husks.

Thiamethoxam (35G/L)

CRUISER 350 FS

caterpillar

a mass of holes, ragged edges, and excrement. Damage prevents cob  formation

Cypermethrin|Alphamethrin (100G/L)

BESTOX 100 EC (

PLUSFARM KENYA               PAMS KENYA Resource Centre                                  Feeding Africa Sustainably




Herbicides

application

Active ingredient


AGIL 100 EC 

Post emergence

 Propaquizafop 100g/L


 

LINAGAN 50 WP 

Pre and post-emergence


Linuron 500g/Kg


GLYPHOGAN 480 

Nonselective


Glyphosate 360g/L



SIGMA COMBI 50 SC 

Preemergence

Acetalachlor 250g/L+Atrazine 250g/L




BADGE 45 EC 

Post emergence

 Bromoxynil 225g/L + MCPA 225g/L

 

CLAMP-DOWN 480 SL 

Pre emergence

Glyphosate (360G/L)


GLYPHOGAN 360 SL

Pre planting application

 Glyphosate (360G/L)

 

GUGUSATE 410 SL

Pre emergence

Glyphosate isopropylamine salt (41%


SENCOR 480 SC 

Postemergence

Metribuzin (480G/L)


ROUND-UP TURBO

Pre planting application

Glyphosate (450G/L)


WEEDAL 480 SL

Inter row guarded application

Glyphosate (480 g / Litre)


PLUSFARM KENYA     PAMS KENYA Resource Centre                            Feeding Africa Sustainably



Post Harvest

After threshing, drying and cleaning, millets are usually bagged into 100 kg hessian/sisal bags and sealed ready for transportation . Sometimes millet grains may be packed in bags sewn from artificial polythene bags for either transportation or storage. Storage of crops is an essential component of the whole production system. Most millets have excellent storage properties and can be kept for up to 4-5 years in simple storage facilities such as traditional granaries. This is because the seeds are protected from insect attack by the hard hull covering the endosperm, and because grain is usually harvested and stored in dry weather conditions . Millets may be stored, after drying and threshing, as loose grain in bags or loose containers . They are commonly left on the field, prior to threshing, in stacks or piles of harvested plants. The detached heads may also be stored away from the field, in exposed stack or in traditional storage containers. However, the essential pre-requisites for storage of millets are the same as those for other grains. Storage life in millets is inversely related to temperature and relative humidity in storage. Quality can be maintained by reducing storage temperature and humidity or moisture content (or all the three factors) . The relative humidity of 20 percent is marginally acceptable for storage, 

.Harvest during the summer season to allow the heads to dry. Ensure to store yield in dry places and away from direct contact with floor; preferrably clean dry gunny bags

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