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Sorghum
5 months ago

Sorghum

Resource by Plusfarm

Sorghum is a drought-resistant, cereal grain that grows tall like corn, and it is used for a lot more than just sweetening.Sorghum plays an important role in food security especially in semi-arid lands of Kenya as it can survive drought conditions. Sorghum is adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions and produces significant yields under conditions that are unfavorable to most other cereals. In Kenya it grown by a wide number of small scale farmers and sold to local companies such as East Africa Breweries Limited alongside for home consumption.


Varieties

Varieties

Grain Colour

Maturity

Gadam

GREY

105

Seredo

BROWN

105

Serena

BROWN

90

Mtama 1

WHITE

100

Mtama 2

WHITE

105

E 1291

BROWN

210

E 6518

BROWN

240

IS76

WHITE

90

BJ28

BROWN

210


Cultivation

Crop Cultivation Overview

Soil– although sorghum can produce reasonably on infertile soils, for best results, the crop requires a fairly fertile soil which is well drained.

Rainfall-

an annual rainfall of 400-650mm is adequate for optimal production of sorghum. The crop can however withstand drier conditions and still remain green at relatively low moisture levels. It is resistant to water-logging.

Altitude

The crop grows well in areas below 1500m ASL. Poor yields are achieved in areas of higher altitudes and the crop is also prone to attack by pests, e.g. shoot flies

Temperature

Warm temperatures of between 15-35 degrees centigrade are fit for the growth and development of this crop. Colder conditions may extend the maturity period of the crop.

Planting

Propagation is by seeds.

Land should be prepared earlier and planting done at the onset of the rains. Late planting can lead to reduced yields.

Seeds are broadcasted or sown directly into furrows on the well-prepared seedbed. A row spacing of 45-60cm and plant-to-plant spacing of 12-20cm is suitable, especially if the conditions are favorable. In drier conditions, a wider spacing is adopted.

The crop can be planted as a pure stand or inter cropped with other crops like maize, beans, and cowpeas, among others.

Germination occurs within 5-7 days after sowing.

 



Pests and Diseases / Commonly Used Agrochemicals


Diseases and Symptoms

Active Ingredient

Commonly used Agrochemicals

Grey leaf spot

Leaf lesions, discoloration (chlorosis), and foliar blight. rectangular, brown to gray necrotic lesions that run parallel to the leaf, spanning the spaces between the secondary leaf veins.

Difenoconazole (125G/L) Azoxystrobin (250G/L)

Tebuconazole (200G/L) Trifloxystrobin (100G/L)

AMISTAR TOP 325 SC



NATIVO SC 300 (

Northern leaf blight

Canoe-shaped lesions 1 inch to 6 inches long. The lesions are initially bordered by gray-green margins. They eventually turn tan colored and may contain dark areas of fungal sporulation.

Difenoconazole (125G/L) Azoxystrobin (250G/L)

AMISTAR TOP 325 SC

Corn Rust

Lesions begin as flecks on leaves that develop into small tan spots.

Spots turn into elongated brick-red to cinnamon-brown pustules with jagged appearance.

Found on both upper AND lower leaf surfaces (unlike southern rust)

Pustules turn dark brown to black late in the season.

Difenoconazole (125G/L) Azoxystrobin (250G/L)

Copper oxychloride (50%)

Tebuconazole (200G/L) 

Trifloxystrobin (100G/L)

AMISTAR TOP 325 SC



CUPRAVIT 50 WP



NATIVO SC 300

Loose Kernel Smut

formation of thin pointed galls, which burst out releasing dark brown spores. Spores are blown away leaving long dark pointed, curved structures in the central part of the gall. 

 Captan

CAPTAN 400

Covered Kernel Smut

All kernels are destroyed and replaced with cone shaped galls. 

Captan

CAPTAN 400

Head smut

Large dark brown smut galls emerge in the place of the panicle. Initially, the galls are covered by a whitish layer but later break open releasing spores.

 Tebuconazole

 DUCASSE 250 EW

Top Downy Mildew

The infected plants develop thick, stiff, twisted, pale green leaves with bumpy surfaces.

The plants do not produce heads in severe cases of infection.

Metalaxyl-M 40g/Kg

Mancozeb 640g/Kg

RIDOMIL GOLD® MZ 68 WG

Rust

Mostly appears on the leaves as small raised pustules which then rapture releasing reddish brown spores.

These occur on both sides of the leaf.

Difenoconazole (125G/L) Azoxystrobin (250G/L)

Copper oxychloride (50%)

AMISTAR TOP 325 SC



CUPRAVIT 50 WP

PLUSFARM KENYA                                   Feeding Africa Sustainably

 

Pests and Symptoms

Active Ingredient

Commonly used Agrochemicals

Stem Borer

Tunnels are visible, bore holes straight into the centre of the stem. stunted growth and production of sterile or poorly developed ear heads. 

 Deltamethrin (cis-deltamethrin) (25G/L)

Lambda-Cyhalothrin (17.5G/L)

Chlorpyrifos (480G/L)

 DECIS 2.5 EC

 

DUDUTHRIN 1.7 EC

 

DURSBAN 4 EC 

Termites

hollowed root system filled with soil. Attacked plants can be pulled up by hand easily because the roots are damaged.

 Imidacloprid 700g/Kg

Imidacloprid 200g/L

Fipronil 50g/L

Chlorpyriphos 480g/L

IMIDA TOP 70 WDG 

KOHINOR 200 SL 

MORTEL 50 SC 

PYRINEX 48 EC 

Weevils

Bore holes in grains

Spinosad

SPINTOR 0.125% Dust; TRACER 480 SC Soluble Concentrate

Fall Armyworm

moist sawdust-like frass near the funnel and upper leaves, the leaves appear ragged or torn causing windowing.

 Indoxacarb(p)(150g/l)

Flubendiamide (480g/l)

Chlorantranilipole(200g/l)

Lambda-Cyhalothrin(17.5g/l)

Chlorpyrifos (480G/L)

Carbosulfan(250g/l)

AVAUNT 150 EC

BELT 480 SC

CORAGEN 20 SC

DUDUTHRIN 1.7EC

DURSBAN 4 EC

MARSHAL 250 EC

African bollworm

Parallel rows of holes are signs of feeding on unopened leaves, reduced leaf area

Azadirachtin




Deltamethrin

ACHOOK 0.15% EC Emulsifiable Concentrate; FORTUNE AZA 1,000 ppm; NEEMARK EC 0.03%; NEEMRAJ SUPER – 3000 0.3%; NIMBECIDINE Emulsifiable Concentrate 0.03%; 

Cutworm

missing, cut, or wilted plants.



Lambda-Cyhalothrin (17.5G/L)

Bifenthrin (25G/L)

Cypermethrin|

Alphamethrin (100G/L)

DUDUTHRIN 1.7 EC



BRIGADE 25 EC

BESTOX 100 EC

Armyworm

mass of holes on leaves and the whorl (funnel), ragged edges and larval frass. Young larvae skeletonize the leaf lamina. 

Lambda-Cyhalothrin (17.5G/L)

Lufenuron (50G/L)

Abamectin|Avermectin B1 (18 g / l)

Chlorantranilipole  (45 g / l)

DUDUTHRIN 1.7 EC



MATCH 50 EC

VOLIAM TARGO 063SC

Aphids

reduced tillering, stunting and early leaf senescence. 

Carbosulfan (250G/L)

Beta-cyfluthrin (45G/L) 

Imidacloprid (100G/L)

Imidacloprid (350G/L)

Thiamethoxam (35G/L)

Cypermethrin|Alphamethrin (100G/L)

MARSHAL 250 EC 

THUNDER OD 145

GAUCHO FS 350 

CRUISER 350 FS

 

BESTOX 100 EC (

Thrips

Distorted leaves that turn brownish around the edges and curve upward.  

Carbosulfan (250G/L)

Imidacloprid (350G/L)

Thiamethoxam (35G/L)

MARSHAL 250 EC

GAUCHO FS 350

CRUISER 350 FS

Leaf Hopper

Yellow streaks, dieback or dwarfing. Stunted growth, small cobs with open husks.

Thiamethoxam (35G/L)

CRUISER 350 FS

Caterpillars

A mass of holes, ragged edges, and excrement. Damage prevents cob  formation

Cypermethrin|Alphamethrin (100G/L)

BESTOX 100 EC (

PLUSFARM KENYA                                 PAMS KENYA Resource Centre                                           Feeding Africa Sustainably


Herbicides

Application

Active ingredient

AGIL 100 EC 

Post emergence

 Propaquizafop 100g/L

LINAGAN 50 WP 

Pre and post emergence



Linuron 500g/Kg

GLYPHOGAN 480 

Non selective



Glyphosate 360g/L

SIGMA COMBI 50 SC 

Pre emergence

Acetalachlor 250g/L+Atrazine 250g/L



BADGE 45 EC 

Post emergence

 Bromoxynil 225g/L + MCPA 225g/L

CLAMP-DOWN 480 SL 

Pre emergence

Glyphosate (360G/L)

GLYPHOGAN 360 SL

Pre planting application

 Glyphosate (360G/L)

GUGUSATE 410 SL

Pre emergence

Glyphosate isopropylamine salt (41%

SENCOR 480 SC 

Post emergence

Metribuzin (480G/L)

ROUND UP TURBO

Pre planting application

Glyphosate (450G/L)

WEEDAL 480 SL

Inter row guarded application

Glyphosate (480 g / Litre)

PLUSFARM KENYA                                                          Feeding Africa Sustainably


Post Harvest

Grain sorghum plants mature when the moisture in the grain drops to about 30 percent; however, the seed are usually too soft for harvesting when moisture content exceeds 25 percent. Attempts to harvest above 25 percent moisture will usually produce either unthreshed heads or cracked grain. The optimum harvest moisture, about 20 percent, minimizes harvest losses and drying expense.

Because field drying is difficult and leads to excessive field losses from birds, wildlife and lodging, harvest early and dry your sorghum mechanically to maintain quality and minimize harvest losses.

You can harvest sorghum using row crop or sickle bar headers. Raise the header high enough to harvest only the grain heads with a minimum of leaves and stalks.

Narrow row spacing helps to discourage lodging due to adjacent plants supporting broken stalks. Consequently, a 30-inch row is usually easier to harvest than a 40-inch row.

Combine header losses are usually less at a speed of 2.5 to 3 miles per hour; however, this speed may exceed the capacity of the combine rack and shoe if the stand is dense. In this case, you might want to take a partial swath to prevent overloading and still maintain field speed.

Set combine reel bat speed 15 to 25 percent faster than ground speed to minimize losses. Set the reel height high enough to avoid catching under and throwing the grain heads on the ground. You may need wide reel bats if plant height varies greatly.

Set your combine cylinder and concave to separate the seed from the head without over-threshing. The cylinder speed for sorghum should be less than that for wheat. Some combine manufacturers recommend removing concave bars. Concave clearance should be about 1/2 inch in front and about 3/16 inch at the rear. Clearance for rotors in rotary combines is usually greater. See your combine instruction manual for details about adjustments.

Grain sorghum stalks contain more moisture and are smaller than most corn stalks. As a result, grain sorghum stalks are more likely to be chopped up and carried to the grain tank. Pieces of stalk returned to the cylinder in the tailings will be further ground into fines. The chaffer extension can be closed to prevent this material from entering the tailings conveyor. Sorghum stems often catch and choke the straw walkers, which may cause inconvenience and lost time. Some manufacturers make straw walker covers with smaller holes that stop stems while allowing the grain to drop through.

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